top of page

Academic Journals

Ray Galvin, Deep energy efficiency renovation of Germany’s residential buildings: is this as economically viable as Germany’s policymakers and popular promoters often claim? Energy Efficiency (2024) 17:47


Ray Galvin (2024) How photovoltaics make energy refurbishment more affordable in apartment buildings. Journal of Climate Finance 7: 100039.


Ray Galvin, Re-thinking energy justice to achieve a fair distribution of shared electricity from rooftop photovoltaics in a typical multi-apartment building in Germany: an interdisciplinary approach. Energy Research & Social Science 112 (2024) 103531.


Ray Galvin, Reducing poverty in the UK to mitigate energy poverty by the 10% and LIHC indicators: What tax changes are needed, and what are the consequences for CO2 emissions?, Ecological Economics, Volume 217, 2024, 108055, ISSN 0921-8009, (


Galvin, Ray, The Economic Losses of Energy-Efficiency Renovation of Germany's Older Dwellings: The Size of the Problem and the Financial Challenge it Presents. Available at SSRN: or

Galvin R. (2023). An under-developed dimension in upgrading energy-inefficient German rental buildings: Corporate social responsibility as a hybrid form of governance. Energy Research & Social Science, 101(July): 103148. [DOI]


Galvin, R. (2023). Do Housing Rental and Sales Markets Incentivise Energy-Efficient Retrofitting of Western Germany’s Post-war Apartments? Challenges for Property Owners, Tenants, and Policymakers. Energy Efficiency,16, 25. [DOI]


Galvin R. (2023). How prebound effects compromise the market premium for energy efficiency in German house sales, Building Research & Information, 23(February): 2176284. [DOI]

Terry N and Galvin R (2023) How do heat demand and energy consumption change when households
transition from gas boilers to heat pumps in the UK? Energy & Buildings 292: 113183.

Ray Galvin, Policy pressure to retrofit Germany's residential buildings to higher energy efficiency standards: A cost-effective way to reduce CO2 emissions?, Building and Environment, Volume 237, 2023, 110316, ISSN 0360-1323,


Ray Galvin, Rental and sales price premiums for energy efficiency in Germany's pre-War apartments: Where are the shortfalls and what is society's role in bringing fairness?, Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 98, 2023,

103009, ISSN 2214-6296,

Galvin Ray (2022) Struturation theory as a framework to help understand rebound effects among photovoltaic prosumers in Germany. Umweltpsychologie 26(1): 63-84. ISSN 1434-3304.


Science Talks VIDEO ARTICLE| VOLUME 4, 100081, DECEMBER 01, 2022

Radically reducing UK energy poverty by the 10% and LIHC indicator through progressive fiscal policy: What would it cost, who would pay, and what are the consequences for CO2 emissions?

Font Vivanco, D., Freire-González, J., Galvin, R., Santarius, T., Walnum, H. J., Makov, T., & Sala, S. (2022). Rebound effect and sustainability science: A review. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 26, 1543– 1563.


Ray Galvin, Are electric vehicles getting too big and heavy? Modelling future vehicle journeying demand on a decarbonized US electricity grid, Energy Policy, Volume 161, 2022, 112746, ISSN 0301-4215, (


Ray Galvin, Net-zero-energy buildings or zero-carbon energy systems? How best to decarbonize Germany's thermally inefficient 1950s-1970s-era apartments, Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 54, 2022, 104671, ISSN 2352-7102, (


Benjamin K. Sovacool, Jonn Axsen, Laurence L. Delina, Hilary Schaffer Boudet, Varun Rai, Roman Sidortsov, Sefa Awaworyi Churchill, Kirsten E.H. Jenkins, Ray Galvin, Towards codes of practice for navigating the academic peer review process, Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 89, 2022, 102675, ISSN 2214-6296, (

Galvin R, Why German households won’t cover their roofs in photovoltaic panels: And whether policy interventions, rebound effects and heat pumps might change their minds,

Renewable Energy Focus, Volume 42, 2022, Pages 236-252, ISSN 1755-0084,

Galvin R (2022) Are electric vehicles getting too big and heavy? Modelling future vehicle journeying demand on a decarbonized US electricity grid. Energy Policy 161: 112746.


Galvin R, Schuler J, Atasoy A. T, Schmitz H, Pfaff M, Kegel J (2022) A health research interdisciplinary approach for energy studies: Confirming substantial rebound effects among solar photovoltaic households in Germany. Energy Research & Social Science 86: 102429. 


Preuß S, Galvin R, Ghosh B, Dütschke E (2021) Diversity in transition: Is transitions research diverse (enough)? Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 41: 116–118. 


Galvin R (2021) Identifying possible drivers of rebound effects and reverse rebounds among households with rooftop photovoltaics. Renewable Energy Focus, 38: 71-83.

Galvin R., Dütschke E., Weiss J. (2021). A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Rebound Effects with Renewable Electricity: A New Challenge for Decarbonizing the Electricity Sector. Renewable Energy 176(October). [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R., Martulli A., Ruzzenenti F. (2021) Does power curb energy efficiency? Evidence from two decades of European truck tests. Energy 232: 120867. 

Martulli A., Galvin R., Ruzzenenti F. (2021). Evolution of Energy and Exergy Efficiency in the European Road Freight Industry, 1978–2018. Frontiers in Energy Research 9: 609077. [DOI]

Galvin R (2021) Can President Biden decarbonize the United States light vehicle fleet? Social-technical compromise scenarios for five automakers. Energy Research & Social Science 77: 102104 

Dütschke E, Galvin R, Brunzema I (2021) Rebound and Spillovers: Prosumers in Transition. Frontiers in Psychololgy 12: 636109. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.636109


Weiss J, Gährs S, Galvin R (2021) Die Rolle der Rahmenbedingungen für den Stromverbrauch bei Photovoltaik-Erzeugern: Rebound-Effekte und Prosumer. Ökologisches Wirtschaften 1: 2021 (36). DOI 10.14512/OEW360117

Sunikka-Blank, M., Galvin, R. (2021). Single parents in cold homes in Europe: How intersecting personal and national characteristics drive up the numbers of these vulnerable households. Energy Policy 150(March). [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2020). Yes, there is enough money to decarbonize the economies of high-income countries justly and sustainably Energy Research & Social Science 70(December). [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R., Healy N. (2020). The Green New Deal in the United States: What it is and how to pay for it. Energy Research & Social Science 67(September). [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R. (2020). Who co-opted our energy efficiency gains? A sociology of macro-level rebound effects and US car makers. Energy Policy 142(July). [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R. (2020). I'll follow the sun: Geo-sociotechnical constraints on prosumer households in Germany. Energy Research & Social Science 65(July). [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R. (2020). “Let Justice Roll Down like Waters”: Reconnecting Energy Justice to its Roots in the Civil Rights Movement. Energy Research & Social Science 62(April). [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R. (2020). Power, Evil and Resistance in Social Structure: a Sociology for Energy Research in a Climate Emergency. Energy Research & Social Science 61(March). [ScienceDirect]


Ruzzenenti F., Font Vivanco D., Galvin R., Sorrell S., Wagner A. and Walnum H.J. (2019). Editorial: The Rebound Effect and the Jevons' Paradox: Beyond the Conventional Wisdom. Frontiers in Energy Research 7(90). []


Galvin R. (2019). Letting the Gini out of the Fuel Poverty Bottle? Correlating Cold Homes and Income Inequality in European Union Countries. Energy Research & Social Science 58(December). [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R. (2019). What Does it Mean to Make a Moral Claim? A Wittgensteinian Approach to nergy Justice. Energy Research & Social Science 54(August): 176–184. [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R., Sunikka-Blank, M. (2018). Economic Inequality and Household Energy Consumption in High-income Countries: A Challenge for Social Science Based Energy Research. Ecological Economics 153(November): 78–88. [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R. (2018). Trouble at the End of the Line: Local Activism and Social Acceptance in Low-Carbon Electricity Transmission in Lower Franconia, Germany. Energy Research & Social Science 38(April): 114–126. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2018). ‘Them and us’: Regional-national power-plays in the German energy transformation: A case study in Lower Franconia. Energy Policy 113(February): 269–277. [ScienceDirect]


Sunikka-Blank, M., Galvin, R., Behar, C. (2018). Harnessing Social Class, Taste and Gender for More Effective Policies. Building Research & Information 46:1, 114–126. [Taylor & Francis]


Galvin R. (2017). Energy Consumption Effects of Speed and Acceleration in Electric Vehicles: Laboratory Case Studies and Implications for Drivers and Policymakers. Transportation Research Part D 53(2017): 234–248. [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R. (2017). How does Speed Affect the Rebound Effect in Car Travel? Conceptual Issues Explored in Case Study of 900 Formula 1 Grand Prix Speed Trials. Energy 128 (June): 28–38 [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R., Sunikka-Blank, M. (2017). Ten Questions Concerning Sustainable Domestic Thermal Retrofit Policy Research. Building and Environment (forthcoming). [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R. (2017). Humans and Stuff: Interweaving Social and Physical Science in Energy Policy Research. Energy Research & Social Science 26(April): 98–102. [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R., Gubernat A. (2016). The Rebound Effect and Schatzki’s Social Theory: Reassessing the Socio-materiality of Energy Consumption via a German Case Study. Energy Research & Social Science 22(December): 183–193. [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R., Sunikka-Blank, M. (2016). Schatzkian Practice Theory and Energy Consumption Research: Time for some Philosophical Spring Cleaning? Energy Research & Social Science 22(December): 63–68. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2016). Rebound Effects from Speed and Acceleration in Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Cars: An Empirical and Conceptual Investigation. Applied Energy 172(June): 207-216. [ScienceDirect]


Galvin, R., Sunikka-Blank, M. (2016). Quantification of (p)rebound Effects in Retrofit Policies – Why does it Matter? Energy, 95(January): 415-424. [ScienceDirect]


Grossmann, D., Galvin, R., Weiss, J., Madlener, R., Hirschl, B. (2016). A Methodology for Estimating Rebound Effects in Non-residential Public Service Buildings: Case Study of Four Buildings in Germany. Energy and Buildings, 111(January), 455-467. [ScienceDirect]


Sunikka-Blank, M., Galvin R. (2016). Irrational Homeowners? How Aesthetics and Heritage Values Influence Thermal Retrofit Decisions in the United Kingdom. Energy Research and Social Science, 11(January): 97-108. [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R., Terry N. (2016). Selling Energy Savings in the United Kingdom: A Case Study of Top–down Pro-environmental Behaviour Change in Commercial Office Buildings. Energy Research and Social Science, 11(January): 155-163. [ScienceDirect]


Galvin R. (2015). The ICT/electronics Question: Structural Change and the Rebound Effect. Ecological Economics 120(December): 23-31. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2015). The Eebound Effect, Gender and Social Justice: a Case Study in Germany. Energy Policy 86(November): 759–769. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2015). Integrating the Rebound Effect: Accurate Predictors for Upgrading Domestic Heating. Building Research and Information, 43(November), 710-722. [tandfonline]

Galvin R. (2015). 'Constant' Rebound Effects in Domestic Heating: Developing a Cross-Sectional Method. Ecological Economics, 110(February): 28-35. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2015). How Many Interviews are Enough? Do Qualitative Interviews in Building Energy Consumption Research Produce Reliable Knowledge? Journal of Building Engineering, 1(March):1-12. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R., Sunikka-Blank M. (2014). The UK Homeowner-Retrofitter as an Innovator in a Socio-Technical System. Energy Policy, 74(November): 655-662. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2014). Are Passive Houses Economically Viable? A Reality-based, Subjectivist Approach to Cost-Benefit Analyses. Energy and Buildings, 80: 149-157. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2014). Estimating Broad-Brush Rebound Effects for Household Energy Consumption in the EU28 Countries and Norway: Some Policy Implications of Odyssee Data. Energy Policy, 73: 323-332. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R., Sunikka-Blank M. (2014). Disaggregating the Causes of Falling Consumption of Domestic Heating Energy in Germany. Energy Efficiency, 7: 851-864. [SpringerLink]

Galvin R. (2014). Why German Homeowners are Reluctant to Retrofit, Building Research and Information, 42(4): 398-408. [tandfonline]

Galvin R. (2013). Making the 'Rebound Effect' More Useful for Performance Evaluation of Thermal Retrofits of Existing Homes: Defining the 'Energy Savings Deficit' and the 'Energy Performance Gap', Energy and Buildings, 69: 515–524.

Galvin R. (2013). Targeting 'Behavers' Rather Than Behaviours: A 'Subject-Oriented' Approach for Reducing Space Heating Rebound Effects in Low Energy Dwellings, Energy and Buildings, 67: 596-607. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2013). Impediments to Energy-Efficient Ventilation of German Dwellings: A Case Study in Aachen, Energy and Buildings, 56: 32-40. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R., Sunikka-Blank M. (2013). Economic Viability in Thermal Retrofit Policies: Learning from Ten Years of Experience in Germany, Energy Policy, 54: 343-351. [ScienceDirect]

Rosenow J., Galvin R. (2013). Evaluating the Evaluations: Evidence from Energy Efficiency Programmes in Germany and the UK, Energy and Buildings, 62(July): 450-458. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2012). German Federal Policy on Thermal Renovation of Existing Homes: A Policy Evaluation, Sustainable Cities and Society, 4: 58-66. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R., Sunikka-Blank M. (2012). Including Fuel Price Elasticity of Demand in Net Present Value and Payback Time Calculations of Thermal Retrofits: Case Study of German Dwellings, Energy and Buildings, 50: 219-228. [ScienceDirect]

Sunikka-Blank M., Galvin R. (2012). Introducing the Prebound Effect: The Gap Between Performance and Actual Energy Consumption, Building Research & Information, 40(3): 1–14. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2010). Thermal Upgrades of Existing Homes in Germany: The Building Code, Subsidies, and Economic Efficiency, Energy and Buildings, 42(6): 834-844. [ScienceDirect]

Galvin R. (2010). Solving Mould and Condensation Problems: A Dehumidifier Trial in a Suburban House in Britain, Energy and Buildings, 42(11): 2118-2123. [ScienceDirect]

bottom of page